Instructions For Setting Up, Adjustment, Use And Care Of The Vehicle
These instructions are intended to furnish in the minutest detail all the information needed by individual users of widely different temperaments and of very little knowledge of mechanical things. We suggest that you study these pages in connection with the vehicle until you know them by heart, whether you are familiar with mechanical matters or not, and preserve and re-read them occasionally.
(1) INSPECTION OF VEHICLE. It is a peculiar fact that the vibrations of the freight car will often loosen nuts on machinery that are perfectly tight at the beginning of the journey. Great pains should be taken to examine and tighten, if necessary, all nuts on the engine and vehicle before running the vehicle and after it has been running a short time, and also note carefully that the wheels are perfectly adjusted, not too tight nor too loose.
Make it a rule always to look over your vehicle after returning from a ride, in order to see that everything is in good shape, for if you neglect to do this you are apt to neglect this very important duty in the haste of starting out on the next ride. Remember that you are operating machinery and that you must look after it carefully if you expect it to give you long and good service.
(2) STEERING DEVICE. Connect the steering knuckles to the steering post so that the vehicle will turn to the LEFT when pulling on the steering arm. The paint should be carefully scraped off and the post cleaned with gasoline free from paint and oil before clamping on the lever. Set the front wheels straight and the steering arm at right angles and then insert the pin and clamp the lever tightly so that it cannot possibly slip on the post. This is very important.
(3) CONTROL LEVER CONNECTION RODS. Keep adjusted to correspond with the length of the cables to keep the control lever in nearly a vertical position when the cables are tight and the countershaft always parallel to rear axle.
(4) BRAKE ADJUSTMENT. Adjust the brake rod lever so that the cables will become loose when the brake is set, but not loose enough to run off the sheaves when driving on rough roads. About one-half inch play of the brake shoe from the bottom of the rim when the cables are set tight in driving position is sufficient. Adjust the strike 31 (Cut No. 3) on the brake shoe so that the shoe will stand equidistant from the rim when it is loose and vehicle loaded. The strike is driven into the end of the brake shaft. Turn with a wrench or loosen by driving it outward. Drive it tight again after setting.
(5) THROTTLE LEVER ON STEERING ARM. Turn down (backwards) for slow speed. Turn up (forward) for high speed or full power. The throttle lever sleeve should have friction enough to hold the throttle where placed, but not enough to make it hard to turn. Clean between the sleeve and lever with gasoline or dent, the outer sleeve, making it a little out of round to increase the friction.
(6) CONTROL LEVER. When lever is forced forward the cables are released and the brake applied. To reverse the machine, press down the top of the control lever handle. This will release the brake so that by pushing the control lever farther forward the reverse pulleys are forced back against the rear wheels.
(7) CHANGE GEAR LEVER. When shifting the gear the cables should be loose and the motor should be running very slowly, otherwise a chain or sprocket may be broken.
(8) MOTOR. The following explanation of the operation of the motor will be a valuable help in learning the use of it. The action of the motor is divided into four cycles or strokes of the pistons.
FIRST STROKE, or Suction Stroke. Starting with the piston, as shown in cut No.1, nearest the head (2), a one-half turn of the crankshaft (32) moves the piston inward toward the crankshaft and draws a charge of gas from the carburetor through the inlet pipe (R) and the inlet valve (16), the exhaust valve (18) having been closed just before the beginning of this stroke, so that no air can get into the cylinder without going through the carburetor, which is connected at “C” and which makes an explosive gas of the ingoing air by spraying or vaporizing gasoline into it as it passes through.
SECOND STROKE, or Compression Stroke. At the end of the first stroke the inlet valve closes by spring (15), and the second stroke, or another half-turn of the crankshaft compresses the entrapped gas into the end of the cylinder. As soon as the piston reaches the end of this stroke (the same position as the beginning of the first stroke) the circuit breaker (36) makes contact, closing the electric circuit, causing the vibrator on the spark coil to buzz, causing a stream of hot sparks to take place at the spark plug points on the spark plugs (P), which are surrounded by compressed gas, which fires or explodes and suddenly expands, producing great pressure against the piston, starting it back on the next stroke. When the motor is at work or running fast the circuit breaker block (40) must be tilted forward, “advanced” far enough to cause the spark to take place from 3/8 inch to 7/16 of an inch before the end of the second or compression stroke. This is to give the gas time to be completely fired and expanded by the time the second stroke is completed and the third stroke begins, for the explosion is not absolutely instantaneous.
THIRD STROKE, or Power Stroke. The expanding gas drives the piston back, turning the crank shaft another half revolution, but when the piston reaches a point about five-eighths inch before the end of this stroke the exhaust valve (18) is opened by the cam (19), allowing the gas to escape into the exhaust pipe and muffler.
FOURTH STROKE, or Exhaust Stroke. Another one-half revolution of the crank shaft, and the exhaust valve remains open until the piston reaches the outer end of this fourth or exhaust stroke and closes just as the piston starts on the next cycle or first stroke as above described. The action in both cylinders is the same, except that the time alternates as there is only one power stroke for each revolution of the crank shaft.
(9) CIRCUIT BREAKER. (See “Motor,” page 2, Cut No.2, which explains the operation of the circuit breaker.) See that all screws and nuts are kept tight and that the advancer works freely, and wash off often with kerosene while motor is running, and keep as clean as possible, especially the ball and the contact disc.
(10) EXHAUST VALVES. These valves are ground to an air-tight seat and should work freely on their stems under a tension of not less than 20 nor more than 25 pounds, spring pressure. A tool is supplied for regrinding the exhaust valves. (See “Inlet Valves.”)
(11) INLET VALVES. These valves are ground to an air-tight fit at their seat and where they fit into the valve chamber. The valve should open freely, not more than one-eighth inch, under a spring tension of not more than 20 ounces nor less than 12 ounces. And both valves should be alike in all respects.
If regrinding the valves becomes necessary, put a paste of oil and flour of emery on the seat and turn it in both directions with a slight pressure of a screwdriver or grinding tool, taking pains to get no emery on the stem or into the explosion chamber and to wash off all trace of emery with gasoline when through.
(12) BATTERIES. If two sets of batteries are supplied, use one continually until it becomes weak, then replace the weak one and use the other battery in the same manner. One side point of the switch connects one battery, the other side the other battery, and the middle point connects both in series, making the voltage (force or current) no greater, but doubling the amperage (amount of current). Each six-inch cell of dry battery should give not less than ten (10) amperes. If one cell should become deranged the whole battery will be deranged, but if the other cells test up to the required volts and amperes it is only necessary to renew the bad cell to renew the battery. When testing cells with the ammeter keep it in contact no longer than necessary to take the reading. Batteries must be kept dry or they will run down whether in use or not. Wires must be kept clean and free from oil and all contacts, and terminals of connecting wires must be clean and bright or the full force of the current will not flow.
(13) SPARK COIL. The electric current from the batteries flows through the vibrator on the coil, which rapidly breaks and closes the primary circuit when contact is made at the circuit breaker (40), Cut No.1. In the coil this primary current causes another (secondary) current to flow through the larger, heavily insulated wires to the spark plugs. This secondary current has very much higher voltage (force or pressure) and correspondingly less quantity (amperage) than the ordinary current from the batteries. The voltage enables it to jump an air gap in the circuit or penetrate any small quantity of insulation, but the quantity of current is so small that the slightest change of leakage through bad insulation of wires or dirt on the insulation of the spark plug permits the current to leak from the wires and go some other course, rather than jump the gap at the spark plug points.
Keep all wires free from dirt or oil. Oil spoils the insulating qualities of the rubber. This applies more especially to the secondary or high voltage wires leading from coil to spark plugs.
Keep the vibrator adjusted according to the conditions of the batteries to give good, clear, rapid vibration, or best power to the motor. The vibrator had better be adjusted when the motor is pulling, as one is more certain to get it adjusted for good power in this way. Weak batteries require that the vibrator screw be released a little, but it should be adjusted as loosely against contact on vibrator as possible to give best results. Too tight an adjustment makes the coil use more current or battery life than necessary. The points on the vibrator must be kept clean and flat where they touch each other. Clean with a very fine, thin flat file. The slightest particle of dust or even a fine cotton or paper fiber between the vibrator points is sufficient to derange the electric spark, making the motor run irregularly or with low power or stop altogether.
Turn on the switch only when everything else is ready to start the motor. Turn off the switch at once when the motor comes to a stop.
(14) SPARK PLUGS. The spark plugs consist of a middle metal part having binding posts for the secondary current wires and an outside metal part screwed into the motor. The middle part is insulated from the outside part and this insulation must be kept clean from oil, dust or soot. The slightest dust or dirt on the insulation, whether visible or not, and whether on the part inside the motor or the part outside, may cause all or most of the secondary current to leak around the points instead of being forced to jump the gap between them, reducing the size and heat of the spark at the points and reducing the force of the explosion and the power of the motor.
The points and interior insulation should be carefully cleaned with gasoline and with a knife or file or very fine sandpaper. The interior and exterior insulation should then be cleaned with gasoline in order to get rid of all oil, soot or dust. Take pains to preserve the smooth polished surface of the outside insulation. If the insulation becomes broken or punctured so that some of the electric current passes through or leaks and is not forced to jump at the spark points, the plugs are worthless. In case a defective plug is suspected, try a new and perfect one in its place and note if there is a difference in the force or regularity of explosions or in the power of the motor.
The sparking points should be kept about one thirty-second to one sixty-fourth of an inch apart. Examine the plugs before putting them in the motor, and see that the points have not been crowded together. The weaker the batteries or the more leakage in the insulation, the closer the points must be to give the hottest sparks.
Spark plugs having a tapered thread and no shoulder are tightened by the taper. Use a small wrench to make sure you do not turn them too hard, but turn them tight. A cold plug screwed tight into a hot cylinder may expand enough to break the casting.
Always put graphite paste on the threads of spark plugs before putting them in place, but great care should be used to prevent graphite from getting on the points of spark plug or on the insulation, either on the inside or outside of the cylinder, as the graphite might then short circuit the plugs.
It is wise to always carry a couple of extra spark plugs, an exhaust valve and spring, and an inlet valve with the machine.
(15) CARBURETOR. Use 76 degree gasoline in cold weather. As low as 68 degree test may be used in warm weather. We set the carburetor to the proper adjustment when it leaves the factory, but differences in altitude or atmospheric conditions or the wearing of the newness or roughness of the needle valve may require a new adjustment very soon.
To adjust the carburetor, see the Carburetor Manufacturers’ Directions. If possible, do the adjusting on the road after the engine has been warmed up. Retard the spark by throwing the starting handle forward and close the throttle and make the engine run as slow as possible without stopping. It should not be run so slow that it does not run evenly. See that the spark plugs, valves and other running conditions of the motor are in perfect order.
When the throttle has been closed so the engine runs as slow as possible without any load, adjust the gasoline supply to give the best speed of the motor at that position of the throttle; that is to say, the motor when the throttle stands at a certain point will run a little faster and the explosions will be a little more vigorous when the mixture of the gasoline and air is correct than when the mixture is not quite correct. When you have found the point at which the mixture is correct at the lowest speed, then, while the spark is still retarded, open the throttle and let the motor run as fast as it will run without load. Now adjust the carburetor for high speed and medium speed according to the carburetor manufacturer’ directions. Then try the carburetor adjustment by running the vehicle on the road, trying it on hills and sandy places, so you will be sure to have the adjustment set where it will give the best mixture for pulling when the engine is running at medium speed, say 800 R.P.M. A good way is to repeatedly travel some road having a hill or heavy pull that will require the same power at each negotiation, trying low speed, high speed and hard pulling (all on high speed gear), changing the carburetor each repeated round until the best adjustment is found, noting or marking the adjustments so that any adjustment may be returned to afterward. After the adjustment is made, of course the screws or nuts should be tightened so they will stay at the points set. If you are not quite certain as to which point gives the best mixture, give the doubt to the richer mixture; that is, you should have a little too much gasoline rather than too small an amount of gasoline.
If, when all other things, such as spark plugs, valves and electrical parts are in perfect order, there is a little popping backward into the carburetor when the motor is running, it indicates that the mixture is too weak in gasoline and needs more. This might be due to a stoppage in the gasoline supply pipe or to an accumulation of water in the supply to the carburetor.
When the mixture is a little too rich in gasoline the explosions may be regular and the engine run smoothly, but it will not give as good power and causes soot on the spark plugs in the course of a few hours’ running. A mixture a little too rich is best indicated by a deposit of soot in the cylinders which will show on the spark plugs after a time. When the mixture is perfect no soot will be deposited at least for, say 200 miles running, unless there is too much lubricating oil, but an oil deposit is different is different from a soot deposit and is easily distinguished.
If the carburetor floods and the gasoline drops out of the bottom of it, jar the carburetor by striking it a blow with the hand or the handle of a screwdriver or something to start the needle towards its seat, and see that the carburetor sets above level when the vehicle is level. If this does not stop the flow of the gasoline, turn off the gasoline at tank and take out the needle valve and remove the dirt.
Remove the carburetor supply pipe fitting from the gasoline tank occasionally and clean the strainer on the inner end of it.
Drain off the residue of gasoline from the tank from time to time when refilling it. Use great care to put nothing but absolutely pure, clean gasoline into the tank. Remember that water or the liquid that settles to the bottom of a gasoline vessel after it stands a long time dilutes the gasoline if it gets into the carburetor and would give the same symptoms that would be given if you did not have the adjustment open enough to give the proper amount of gasoline. This may occur with bad gasoline if vehicle stands only over night.
After setting the carburetor do not change the adjustment in case of trouble with the motor until everything else is found to be in perfect order and you are sure that the gasoline supply is good in quantity and quality.
(16) OIL AND BEARINGS. See the oiler manufacturers’ directions for the oiler. Adjust the oiler so that the front cylinder gets enough oil to lubricate the front cylinder all around and as far forward as the piston travels, but not enough to gum up the spark plugs or the inlet valves. Use as much oil in the crank case as the rear cylinder will use and not throw so much back to the end as to gum up the inlet valve or spark plug. The splash from the crank case will lubricate the rear cylinder and all inside bearings of the motor and help to lubricate the sprockets and the change gear on the motor shaft. It should be watched closely, especially for the first one or two hundred miles, to see that all these parts get sufficient oil. Before starting a new motor, oil all the parts separately and put oil into the bottom of the crank case to the depth of about three-eighths of an inch. The oiler is set to supply plenty of oil (more than enough) when it leaves the factory. It may have been tampered with or changed or other conditions may have changed, so it is well not to rely too much on the adjustment found, but to take great pains with the lubrication at the start. Use heavy Monogram oil for warm weather and medium Monogram oil for cold weather. The Monogram oils can be obtained from Columbia Lubricants Company, 116 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. Cylinder oil of less than 650 degrees fire test must not be used. In very cold weather the cylinder oil may be thinned by dissolving in a small quantity of kerosene, say one part kerosene to ten parts oil, and increasing the supply to the crank case proportionately.
Lubricate the three bearings on the counter shaft quite frequently. All other moving parts, bearings, or oiling places should also have frequent attention. The sprockets on the change gear run loose when not engaged and should be kept well lubricated. Lubricate the gear shifter ring occasionally. When springs squeak and show stiffness, lubricate the joints and between leaves.
New bearings are apt to get hot at first, and in extreme cases they may even fire. They should, therefore, be felt at frequent intervals and if distinctly hot should be freely lubricated and if necessary, readjusted.
Lubricate the under side of the chain with cup grease or any stiff grease or vaseline or bicycle chain lubricant, to prevent link and sprocket wear. Lubricate the threads of the spark plug, cylinder heads and inlet valve nuts with graphite paste each time they are replaced. (Graphite paste may be obtained in tubes at bicycle or automobile supply houses.)
If any operating levers or the starting handle or their parts become gummed with heavy oil or new paint, apply kerosene until they work freely.
Lubrication is very important, and except for the waste oil and possible gumming of the spark plugs and inlet valves, too much cannot be used. But in addition to this, all grit must be removed, not only from the bearing itself, but also from any place from which it can reach the bearing, otherwise lubrication will not save the bearing from wear.
Wash off oily dirt from all outside parts with gasoline. If a large flat pan be suspended under the vehicle to catch the washing drip, the parts may be freely cleaned with gasoline with a swab or syringe and the gasoline kept in a closed vessel. The top may be poured off from the settlings of dirt and used again and again.
Cylinder oil may be used for roller axle bearings, though Boston coach oil is to be preferred. Put the oil on the rollers and cones, also on the spindle. Do not use it too freely. We advise looking at the bearings once a month. If at the end of that time they do not need more oil, let them run another month. If more is required, re-oil and let them run thirty days longer, etc. Do not use a grease, as this has a tendency to clog the rollers. For plain axle bearings use pure sperm axle oil and examine them much oftener at first.
Remove the cap to the crank case from time to time to be sure that the bearings are all being properly lubricated, and take up any wear on the crank pin bearings that may have taken place. Make sure that the bolts are tight and that the wide shim between the crank pin bearings is always put in place after adjusting the bearings.
The residue of oil in the crank case should be drawn off and the crank case washed out occasionally (about every 500 to 600 miles) with kerosene. Do not turn crank while cleaning crank case. Take pains to replace the residue with clean lubricating oil.
If burned or charred oil accumulates anywhere in the explosion chamber, premature explosions will take place when the motor is working hard and destroy the full power of the motor.
Remove the heads of the cylinder occasionally (every 500 or 600 miles) and clean the cylinder explosion chambers and valve chambers free from burned lubricating oil or soot and wash out with gasoline and make sure that the lubrication is perfect.
If heads do not respond to spanner wrench, loosen by soaking threads in coal oil or jar with hammer and punch on reinforced ribs, same as for any tight right-hand thread.
Always carry an oil can with lubricating oil and one with gasoline or kerosene.
(17) CABLES. It is not necessary to take off the wheels to remove or put on the cables. Lay the cables on the ground and roll the wheels into them. Then (having set the control lever forward, bringing the sheaves back close to the wheels) place the cable over the small driving sheave and UNDER the large rim on the wheel. This brings the cable up where it can easily be run into the rim at the top by rolling the wheel forward. The cables are all made to proper length before leaving the factory, but if they seem to have drawn up a little on the way or for any reason should tighten up on the road, you can take off the reverse wheels until the cables stretch to the right length to allow the reverse wheels to be put on again and leave room enough to operate freely. If you take the reverse wheels off, however, be sure that the brake rod is in place so that the brake will apply when the control lever is pushed forward, and do not let the sharp threads of the reverse bolt rub against the rubber tires. The threads could be covered by wrapping them with heavy Manila twine or soft leather. You can operate the vehicle just as well without the reverse wheels except that you cannot reverse.
Be careful to keep the cables from getting thoroughly wet before they have been running long enough to be thoroughly well stretched. If they should get wet, or if they stand for some time in a damp place, hang them up by the stove or furnace and dry them out before they have had time to shrink too much. Apply dressing from time to time until they become filled to a smooth surface. Keep them covered with dressing before using them in rainy weather. ALWAYS LEAVE THE CABLES RELEASED when through with the vehicle or when it is standing. Do not put on too much dressing at a time, as it will make the cables, or brake shoes, or both, stick in the driving sheaves. If the cables seem too sticky, apply clay dust, or wipe them off with gasoline. If they slip too easily in the sheaves when new or recently dressed, apply a little powered rosin. If the brake shoes become gummed up and stick to the sheaves, clean with kerosene.
In ordinary operation of starting or stopping the machine it should be impossible for the cables to fly off the sheaves or rim, and if they do come off, the brake lever adjustment is not right and should be fixed immediately. (See 4, page 1.) But in the reverse action on sideling ground, if the cables are very loose they may run off. You will soon become accustomed to manipulating the cables so they will not come off. If the cables are quite long and should show a tendency at any time to hug or stick in the sheaves instead of slipping freely in the reverse action, it is better to tighten them again and release the lever slowly so that when ready to reverse the cables will be in the outer edge of the sheave and slipping freely.
We furnish cable dressing at $1.00 per half-gallon can, made especially for our purpose. The ordinary cable dressings found on the market are not satisfactory for the reason that they are either too sticky or too oily to allow the cables to operate well in the sheaves.
To apply the dressing to the cable, put a support under the rear axle so that the rear wheels will be lifted free from the ground and start the motor. Then apply with a brush or swab against the cables on all sides while the cables are in motion, and be careful not to apply too much dressing in this manner, as it will make the cables too sticky. Heat the dressing in cold weather. The better way is to apply it lightly and oftener until the cables are quite well protected by the dressing. This dressing not only aids in water-proofing the cables, but also helps to even up the surface and give better friction and driving efficiency.
Always keep the adjustment in the control lever connecting rods in corresponding holes on each side of the vehicle. Never drive the vehicle or pull on the control lever unless both cables are in place.
(18) CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. Keep the chains not too tight, but loose enough to detect a little slack. The chain sprockets should always be in line so that the chains have no tendency to run towards one side of the sprockets. If the sprockets are not in line, note whether the sprockets are loose on the countershaft or whether the countershaft has been forced out of line so the sheaves do not line with the wheels.
(19) COUNTERSHAFT. Keep the three hangers of the countershaft of equal length and the countershaft parallel with the motor shaft. Keep the outside countershaft bearings out against the sheaves by adjusting the hangers in their upper bearings, so that the countershaft cannot be moved from side to side on the vehicle. This is important in order to keep the chains running in line and to protect the guide links from wear. To adjust outside hangers, loosen from the countershaft and screw the hanger clevis up or down. To adjust the middle hanger, loosen the nuts and slide the two parts on each other, taking great care to fasten all nuts tight before leaving it.
(20) SHEAVES AND REVERSE PULLEYS. Both driving sheaves should be exactly in line with the rims on the wheels, and the reverse pulleys in line with the tires. If the reverse pulleys do not take hold sufficiently as the tires wear, the two halves of each pulley can be separated a little by inserting another washer between them. Use the large reverse pulleys when cables get long enough.
(21) ADJUSTMENT AND CARE OF THE WHEELS. Jack up the wheels and remove the cables so the wheels will turn freely and easily. For adjusting plain axle bearings, turn the axle nut up until it is a little too tight and then release it until the wheel turns easily, without end play. For adjusting roller bearing axles, screw the nut up very tight, then try the wheel and see if it revolves freely, without end play of the hub as you pull the hub to and from you. If so, no new adjustment should be made for the adjustment is perfect. If, on the other hand, there is end play of the hub as you pull it to and from you, take off the nut, insert in the nut only one of the thin steel adjusting washers which we will send you when called for, and again screw the nut up very tight, using considerable force. Now try the wheel again and see if it revolves quite freely. If it does not so revolve, it is conclusive evidence that the adjusting washer just inserted in the nut was not required, and unless same is removed the bearings will be damaged. No leather or felt washers are to be used on roller bearings under any circumstances.
OPERATING MOTOR AND VEHICLE.
TO START AND STOP THE MOTOR, follow these nine directions in succession:
- See that the cables are loose.
- Open the relief cocks by pulling out the relief cock rod.
- Turn the throttle lever to “1/3 or ½ open” position.
- For a new motor, or after standing several days, turn the motor shaft over two or three times with starting handle, so as to take in gas before starting the electric current.
- Turn on the electric switch.
- Take the starting handle and turn forward at least ¼ turn before the ratchet takes hold; turn the handle backward ¼ turn before turning the ratchet takes hold. Turn the handle backward ¼ turn before turning time to a safe position. Make the starting handle ratchet take hold in such a position that compression (or the hardest part of the turn) will take place on the downward stroke when starting from the seat, and on the upward stroke when starting from the ground, as is most convenient. Never allow your hand to be in a position so that a back kick would cramp your wrist or arm, as it might easily break or strain your arm. Turn the motor shaft forward until the resistance of compression is felt, then continue the turn with a quicker, sharp pull, and the motor should start. If it is necessary to start the motor while it is very hot, open the half compression cocks or start on nearly closed throttle and turn over the compression point very quickly, or the motor may turn backward from premature firing from the heat of the motor instead of from the spark. If the motor does not start after turning three or four times, and the coil vibrator buzzes at the proper time, and all adjustments have been properly made, prime the carburetor a little , admitting more gasoline. If the carburetor needs priming in warm weather, it indicates that the gasoline is of poor grade or chocked in its passage, or that there is an air leak in the inlet pipe or exhaust valve or somewhere to admit air into one or both cylinders. In very cold weather it may be necessary to put a small quantity of gasoline directly into the oiler over the inlet valves, or warm the carburetor by putting hot water on it in order to start vaporization of the gasoline. If priming the carburetor does not give an explosive mixture after four or five turns, it indicates that too much, rather than too little, gasoline has been supplied, in which case open the pet cocks under the cylinder and turn the motor slowly until the explosions take place and pop out of the pet cocks. Then close the pet cocks and start the motor. If necessary in starting the motor, the change gear can be set in the center so that either gear is engaged. Then, after the motor is started, the lever can be thrown into either gear by following the above cautions. (See No.7, page 2.) When doing this the low gear should be thrown in first and shift to high gear from the low gear later, instead of throwing directly into high gear. It is best to leave the high gear engaged and not to change for starting the motor, but simply loosen the cables.
- As soon as the motor starts, turn the starting handle a turn backward and leave it at rest position, and the spark will be automatically advanced to the proper position to give the best results. If the time of sparking is not thus advanced, the motor will not give full power or full speed, but will get very hot. (See “Circuit Breaker,” No.9, page 2.) Throttle the motor and make it run at as low speed as possible without stopping it, until you are ready to start the vehicle.
- Close the relief cocks as soon as motor starts. Allow the motor to run a few moments at medium speed before using the power in cold weather, of if it has not been running for some time.
- To stop the motor, close the throttle until the motor runs very slowly, then throw off the switch. If the throttle is slightly open just before the engine stops, it will start easier next time from the charges drawn into the cylinder during the last revolution.
TO START VEHICLE.
- Get into the seat and open the throttle to see if the motor responds.
- Open the throttle and as the motor gains higher speed tighten the cables sufficiently to start the vehicle. After started, always run with the cables as loose as possible – that is, only tight enough to drive the wheels without appreciable slipping. Tighten the cables and open the throttle, if necessary, for hills or heavy places in the road.
Regulate the speed of the vehicle as much as possible by the throttle, but do not throttle so low just before more power is needed that the motor cannot regain speed before its power is required. The motor should be running at a normal speed before working power is required of it. The metallic click, due to premature explosions, heard in the motor when it is pulling hard at slow speed, indicates that the motor is running too slowly to do good work without injury. Closing the throttle to the point necessary to stop the clicking sound, then gradually opening it as the speed is gained, will give as good power with the use of less fuel as full open throttle, but if this does not result in sufficient power, loosen the cables a little until the motor gains proper speed. To stop the vehicle without stopping the motor, close the throttle, release the cables and apply the brakes.
- Never allow the motor to race or run at high speed without a load, and never run the motor faster than necessary, and it will wear longer and give better service. Always look to the lubrication first, and be sure that there is plenty of lubricating oil in the reservoir.
- Do not be in a hurry to start the motor or to run the vehicle before you have thoroughly mastered the instructions. When in doubt as to what to do or as to what is the matter, or if anything does not seem to be working right stop the motor or vehicle at once (and investigate afterwards), and be sure you are right before going ahead.
- Keep all nuts tight. Motor nuts tightened when motor is cold must be tightened again after it has been running a while and is still hot.
- Always keep the brake so adjusted that it will apply immediately upon slacking the cables. If after a hard pull on the cables they do not slacken enough, or as much as usual when the brake is set, or if the brake shoes remain set too closely when the cable is again tightened but little (after having been pulled very tight) press down the handle of the control lever and loosen the brake lever a notch or two.
- Keep plenty of gasoline in the tank. Keep lights and cigars away when filling the tank, or if the carburetor or any of the pipes should spring a leak.
- If the motor chokes down on a hard pull, release the control lever until the motor regains its normal speed. A great deal more can be accomplished by skillful handling of the motor then by careless and incompetent driving. As heavy grades or pulls can often be surmounted by the high speed gear in the hands of a skilled operator as on the low speed gear by an unskilled driver. Do not expect your vehicle to go anywhere and everywhere before you have thoroughly mastered it by patient practice. Remember, you can often extricate yourself from a bad place by first reversing and then driving ahead. Be careful that you do not allow the reverse pulleys to grind away on the wheels without reversing them, as in that event the reverse pulleys would cut into the rubber tires. Better slow down the motor a little when you wish to reverse and use the low gear (if necessary for power) in reversing.
- There is such a thing as jockeying a motor to get results when it would be unable to extricate the vehicle on a straight pull of the control lever. If you get stuck, release your cables and let the engine attain full speed. Then draw up the cables quickly and tightly so that they will not take hold firmly, and hold them there until the engine shows sign of stopping. Then release the cables momentarily and let the engine regain its speed and tighten the cables again quickly before the momentum of the vehicle has been entirely lost. When operating in this manner it is best to hold the control lever handle down and keep the brake ratchet out of adjustment so the brake will not retard progress when the cables are slack. Do not jerk the lever when you tighten the cables; simply pull it up tight quickly with an even pull. On heavy pulling it is all right to let the motor run slowly and keep the cables quite tight until the motor shows signs of stopping, as it is sometimes the case that the motor is then doing the pulling.
- Snow, Ice and Mud: The machine does very fine work in snow, slush, mud, etc. Sometimes a small rope around the tires of both rear wheels is helpful in preventing slipping on hills or in bad places. In driving in deep snow or mud, keep the cables as TIGHT AS POSSIBLE, and the snow or mud will then be forced out of the rims and sheaves and will not clog them or throw off the cables.
SYMPTOMS OF DERANGEMENT – CAUSE AND REMEDY.
- It is just as important that the user of a motor should know how to take care of it and prevent its derangement as it is that the manufacturer should make it well. The ordinary railroad steam locomotive would not give the service it does if it were not put into the hands of experts, or so-called engineers, who have learned how to take care of the oiling problem and to keep their machine in order, and if at the end of every 75 to 125-mile run of every locomotive it were not put into a roundhouse and carefully looked over, “wiped up”, adjusted and cleaned. Familiarity with the foregoing instructions and intelligent and diligent care of the motor and vehicle will enable the user to forestall most, if not all, derangements, and insure him against any break-down on the road.
- A most pointed instance of the train of derangements that may follow carelessness in small things is as follows:
If lubricating oil accumulates on the inlet valve, and especially on the seat of the valve, the oil becomes thoroughly vaporized by the heat of the motor and partly burned or charred, and glues the inlet valve fast to the seat. When an inlet valve is thus glued with oil it will not open quickly and will sometimes not open at all until the pressure on the outside of the valve, due to the vacuum created by the movement of the piston in the cylinder, has reached a high point. When the valve does not open, except under such high pressure, it opens at high speed and with, such a bang against the washer at the end of the stem that it soon wears out the washer, makes the space where the spring does its work a little longer, therefore making the spring tension too weak at the initial opening of the valve. A gummed condition of the valve often holds it open too long, especially after it has worn out the end of the stem, so that it opens more than one-eighth of an inch. If it stays open too long, or until the compression stroke takes place, it goes shut with a bang and this injures the valve disk itself and wears the fastening on the end of the stem also. This condition is usually apparent from a backward flow of gas through the carburetor. Gummed valves may be detected by the sound through the carburetor when turning motor over by hand. When throttle is open, a dry valve flutters.
A gummed or oily condition of an inlet valve will soon wear out the valve, and if it is not attended to, the washer holding the spring may eventually work off, and, if it gets under the seat of the valve, may hold it open so far that the exhaust valve will strike it when it is open, much as a punch or hammer would strike it. This would derange, break or wear out the exhaust valve mechanism and might put the exhaust valve out of true position on its seat so it could not close tight, or bend the exhaust valve stem a little. Or it might wear out or flatten the roller at the end of the exhaust valve stem push rod, or it may wear out or break the cam or its fastenings to the cam shaft, or the cam shaft gear, or the fastening of the cam shaft gear to the motor shaft. Any or all of this train of derangements may arise from allowing the motor to run with enough lubricating oil to oil the inlet valve. The inlet valve will run a very long time, say 2,000 or 3,000 miles, without becoming gummed with oil if the oil has been properly regulated and if the motor has been kept in good condition in other parts. A weak spark or a poor mixture, which causes misfiring, will allow more oil than usual to pass the pistons, and this may cause the oiling or gumming of the inlet valves.
If the mechanical parts of the motor are in good working order (See “Motor”, No.8, page 2) there are four conditions still necessary to run the motor, namely, (1) the proper mixture of gasoline and air, (2) highly compressed in the cylinders, (3) the ignition or explosion of this gas (4) at the proper time. A derangement of the slightest degree in any one of these four conditions will destroy the power of the motor in much greater proportion than the derangement might indicate.
If the motor does not seem to develop the usual power, first see at once that all bearings are free and lubricated. (See “Lubrication”, No.16, page 6.) The motor may be as powerful, but the power absorbed by (A) too tight or rubbing brake shoes or by a tight or dry axle bearing; (B) dry countershaft bearing; (C) dry sprocket bearings on motor shaft; (D) dry motor shaft bearings; (E) dry crank pin bearings; (F) dry wrist pin bearings; (G) dry piston bearings in cylinders.
If when the relief cocks and the pet cocks are open, releasing ALL compression, and the change gear lever is in the middle position, motor shaft turns hard only at points in its revolution when pistons move forward and backward, and easy when pistons are at both extremities, it indicates “(G)”. If it turns hard when pistons are at either extremity, it indicates “(F)”. If hard at all points about equally, it indicates “(C)” or “(D)” or “(E)”. If the compression is not as good as usual, it indicates “(G)” or a leak at the exhaust or inlet valve, or the spark plugs, cylinder heads, pet cocks, relief cocks, or elsewhere. (H) Unusual heat in cylinders when motor has been running fast, indicates “(G)” or an accumulation of charred lubricating oil in cylinder causing premature explosions, or (See “Lubrication”, No.16, page 6) (J) IMPROPER MIXTURE. (See “Carburetor”, No.15, page 4). (1) A rich mixture (too much gasoline or too little air in the mixture) destroys the explosive quality of the gas and causes smoky exhaust, soot deposit on cylinders and spark plugs and undue heat in the motor. (2) A weak mixture (too little gasoline or too much air) destroys the explosive quality of the gas and causes irregular motion and lost power, soot deposits when misfiring occurs, undue heat in the motor (a weak mixture being hard to fire and very slow burning), causing back firing into the carburetor occasionally, same as weak spark. (See “Carburetor”, No.15, page 4); (See “Coil and Batteries”, Nos.12 and 13, page 3). (K) VIBRATION, or jerky motion at every revolution of the motor shaft, indicates one cylinder only working. To find which one, open switch on one cylinder after another, noting which cylinder was doing the work. (L) DIRTY SPARK PLUGS (See “Spark Plugs”, No.14, page 4); cause “(K)” and “(H)”. (M) EXPLOSIONS IN THE MUFFLER indicate “(L)” or (N) WEAK BATTERIES or poor contact in electrical contacts at wire terminals, switch, vibrator or circuit breaker, or a broken wire, or spark points too far apart (See “Spark Plugs”, No.14, page 4); (See also “Batteries”, No.12, page 3). (O) EXPLOSIONS back into the carburetor indicate “(L)” or “(J 2)” or “(N)”, or (P) GUMMED UP or deranged inlet valve (See “Lubrication”, No.16, page 6; and No.2, page 12), or indicates “(U)” or vibrator on coil dirty, deranged or out of adjustment. (Q) LEAK IN THE INLET PIPE, indicated by weaker mixture at low speed or difficulty of starting due to dilution of mixture when turning the motor slowly. Fasten inlet valve shut by wooden wedge in spark plug hole in valve chamber and fill the inlet pipe with gasoline or kerosene to find the leak. (R) WEAK EXHAUST VALVE SPRINGS, indicated by bad mixture when throttling, lack of high speed in motor and difficulty in starting the motor (See “Exhaust Valves”, No.10, page 2). (S) EXCESSIVE LUBRICATING OIL, indicated by smoky exhaust, oily plugs, gummed inlet valves, or discharge of oil when the pet cocks are opened (See “Lubrication”, No.16, page 6). Open the pet cocks under the cylinder when the motor is running and blow off the excess from the cylinders. (T) LOOSE FLY-WHEEL, caused by sudden stoppage of the crank shaft, by breakage, or by premature explosions, indicated by difficulty in starting on account of peculiar back-firing or erratic action of motor and a sound as if something were broken inside and interfered with a normal movement of the parts. Tighten the nut on the end of the crankshaft with large wrench and hammer power when starting, due to “(J 2)”, which can be detected by momentarily (as of back-firing), remove it and clean the hole and the end of the shaft from oil with gasoline and tighten as above. (U) DETERIORATED GASOLINE, or a stoppage in gasoline, indicated by “(O)”or by lack of power when starting, due to “(J 2)”, which can be detected by momentarily stopping the auxiliary air inlet to carburetor, flooding carburetor, or by temporarily opening the gasoline regulating needle valve or carburetor. (V) If STARTING PAWLS in fly-wheel hub do not drop into action for starting the motor, wash out the cavity with kerosene squirted into holes in the hub which are directly over the pawls. If this does not remedy the matter and the sprocket seems too tight between fly-wheel and motor bearing, cut out one of the fibre washers between the starting sprocket and the motor bearing and loosen the sprocket. A grating or rattling noise at the motor shaft when the motor pulls indicates (W) a loose chain jumping sprockets, (X) a deranged change gear, (Y) or deranged or loose gear distance rod.
GUARANTY. Our guaranty on material and workmanship runs for six months. All parts in which defects are claimed must be returned to our factory, prepaid, for examination by us. All broken small parts should be returned anyway, so we can send the exact size.
ORDERS FOR REPAIRS.
Address all mail and send all order for repairs to our office, Room 662, Monadnock Block, and GIVE THE NUMBERS FOUND ON THE FLY-WHEEL OF YOUR MOTOR WITH EACH ORDER, and give the number and name of each part as shown in Cuts 1, 2 and 3. Address express and freight shipments to 3600 South Morgan Street. Do not send for new parts first and expect to return the old parts afterwards for credit. Time will be saved by sending the old parts with all orders for renewals.
SYMPTOMS OF DERANGEMENT.
Explosions back into the carburetor indicates, Nos. 2-9-10-15-16-35.
Lack of high speed in the motor indicates, Nos. 1-2-3-4-5-7-8-12-16-22-23-27-31-33-35.
If the motor starts when the carburetor is flooded and then dies down and revives again when the float valve is raised at the carburetor (or when throttle is fully closed) it indicates, Nos. 2-36.
If the motor pulls well running at high speed and will not pull at slow speed, it indicates, No.15.
If the motor pulls well on slow speed and will not pull on high speed, it indicates, No.22.
If the carburetor will not flood when the float valve is opened, it indicates, Nos. 1-30-49.
Explosions in the muffler indicate, Nos. 5-7-8-16-33.
If the spark is short when the secondary terminals are separated from the plug, it indicates, Nos. 8-21-33.
If the engine is difficult to start, it indicates, Nos. 1-2-3-6-7-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-19-20-21-23-30-31-32-33.
If the motor offers less than usual resistance in one or more cylinders, it indicates, Nos. 3-48.
Overheating of motor indicates, Nos. 1-2-4-12-24-29-34.
Misfiring of motor in all cylinders indicates, Nos. 6-7-8-9-10-11-16-23-33.
Misfiring and black smoke from muffler indicates, Nos. 1-20-27.
Blue smoke continually coming from the muffler indicates, No.17.
When the motor running idle gives little indication of power, it indicates, Nos. 1-2-3-4-5-8-10-11-12-13-14-16-19-22-24-27.
When the motor running idle indicates good power and will not pull the vehicle well, it indicates, Nos. 39-40.
When starting the motor, if it fires in one cylinder and does not fire in the other, it indicates, Nos. 3-5-6-7-8-10-11-14-16-23-33.
If the motor is stuck and you are not able to turn it over, it indicates, Nos. 4-46.
If the motor is knocking it indicates, Nos. 25-48.
If the motor gives more power in one cylinder than the other, it indicates, Nos. 3-5-7-14-16-23-26-33.
If the motor dies down and picks up again of its own accord without changing the throttle, it indicates, Nos. 2-19-22-27-30-49.
If the plugs get foul every day or two it indicates, Nos. 1, 17, 20-27.
- Will suffice in anything relating to the motor. The above numbers refer to articles below.
CAUSES OF DERANGEMENT.
1 Too much gasoline being fed by carburetor.
2 Too little gasoline being fed by the carburetor.
3 No compression caused by leak at valves, spark plugs, cylinder head, pet cocks, relief cock, or elsewhere.
4 No oil in the engine.
5 Circuit breaker not making contact for each cylinder.
6 Broken intake or exhaust valve.
7 Foul spark plug or plugs.
8 Weak batteries.
9 Loose contact in the electric wires or switch, or broken wire.
10 Circuit breaker not making good contact from dirt, wear or derangement.
11 Points on the spark plug too far apart or too close together.
12 Armature points on coil not adjusted.
13 Armature points on coil sticking.
14 Gummed up or stuck inlet valve.
15 Leak in the inlet between carburetor and inlet valve.
16 Weak exhaust valve spring or sticking exhaust valve.
17 Too much cylinder oil being fed to the engine.
19 Gasoline supply to carburetor stopped up.
20 Poor quality of gasoline
21 Coil burnt out.
22 Stopped up muffler.
23 Wet spark plug, secondary wires, or coil.
24 Circuit breaker spark level not in advanced position.
25 Loose or worn bearings in the motor.
26 Unequal tension in intake valve springs. (Remote.)
27 Flooding Carburetor.
28 No gasoline in the carburetor.
29 Oiler not feeding, cause no oil supply, drive wheel loose on oiler shaft, too loose a belt, or loose connection in the feed pipe, or stopped up pump.
30 Gasoline wholly or partly turned off at the supply cock.
31 Throttle not open.
32 Electric switch not on.
33 Leak in the secondary wires.
34 Accumulation of burnt cylinder oil in the cylinders.
35 Weak intake valve springs or gummed inlet valves.
36 Float in the carburetor does not open float valve to admit gasoline.
39 Too tight or rubbing shoe brake.
40 Tight or dry axle bearings.
48 Something broken inside the motor.
49 No gasoline in tank.
- The above information was obtained from a copy of The Holsman Automobile Company Instruction Book. If interested, please feel free to email us for a PDF copy which includes diagrams of the cuts referenced throughout